Java is a class-based, object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in the 1990s. It’s one of the most in-demand programming languages, a standard for enterprise software, web-based content, games and mobile apps, as well as the Android operating system. Java is designed to work across multiple software platforms, meaning a program written on Mac OS X, for example, could also run on Windows.
PHP (Hypertext Processor) is a free, server-side scripting language designed for dynamic websites and app development. It can be directly embedded into an HTML source document rather than an external file, which has made it a popular programming language for web developers. PHP powers more than 200 million websites, including WordPress, Digg and Facebook
Python is a high-level, server-side scripting language for websites and mobile apps. It’s considered a fairly easy language for beginners due to its readability and compact syntax, meaning developers can use fewer lines of code to express a concept than they would in other languages. It powers the web apps for Instagram, Pinterest through its associated web framework, Django, and is used by Google, Yahoo and NASA.
A dynamic, object-oriented scripting language for developing websites and mobile apps, Ruby was designed to be simple and easy to write. It powers the Ruby on rails (or Rails) framework, which is used on GitHub and Shopify. Like Python, Ruby is considered a fairly user-friendly language for beginners.